Outdoor Enclosures for Cats

Glenda Moore of Utah could be called a cat lover: The U.S. Forest Service employee shares her home with eight felines, which she lets enjoy fresh air and bird watching. Her cats luxuriate within the safety of a 26-foot enclosure that includes a ladder, perches, a scratching post and even wind chimes. "The cats get the benefit of the fresh air, the ability to check out the activity in the backyard and a different place to nap," she says.

Cat Enclosure Options
If you want to offer your own cat a secure place to experience the great outdoors, you have a number of options. You can purchase a pre-built cat enclosure, assemble a structure from a kit or plans, or you can come up with your own design. Kristine Kischer, owner of Toronto-based Habitat Haven, says most of her customers start with modest enclosures, then remodel and build up. "It doesn't have to be this humongous expense right off the get-go," she says. "I've had one lady add on five times in the last six years."

Habitat Haven, which ships throughout North America, offers a selection of kits. The company also allows you to plan an enclosure by choosing different elements. A "starter" enclosure runs from $500 to $1,000. The kit arrives with instructions and all necessary hardware.

Cost-effective Solutions
You needn't worry about spending a fortune. Dr. Elizabeth Colleran, DVM, thinks an outdoor enclosure is such a great idea, she installed one herself. "I love outdoor enclosures for cats! I built one off a window in our hospital with lumber and fencing wire to prove to people that you don't have to spend millions to get a safe, fun enclosure," says Dr. Colleran, who practices in Chico, Calif., and Portland, Ore.

Major pet organizations generally are in favor of outdoor enclosures for cats too. The Humane Society of the United States sells portable enclosures on its Web site. There, you'll also find information about a number of businesses that sell plans, kits and pre-built structures.

A Cat Enclosure Checklist
As you plan an enclosure, Dr. Colleran and other experts list several important considerations:

  • Access How will your kitty move from your house to the enclosure? Will you allow free access, letting your cat come and go at will? "One of the most important considerations for me was that I only had to prop open a window to allow the cats access to the cat run," Moore says. Access should be energy-efficient, safe and easy, advises Dr. Colleran. "A covered cat door is a good choice if it is insulated," she says.
  • Security and protection Test every seam to make sure your enclosure is secured to the ground so that your cat can't dig its way out, Dr. Colleran cautions. You'll also want to ensure that your cat has a shady, fully covered space that can offer relief from the sun and weather.

    Your enclosure should be large enough to accommodate the family cats without overcrowding, which can lead to behavior problems. Each cat should have enough room to claim its own space and walk comfortably in and out of the enclosure.
  • Cleanliness Use materials that you can easily clean, and practice flea control in areas that contact the soil. Regular cleaning will help protect your kitty's health and avoid the buildup of unpleasant odors.
  • Enrichment Vertical climbing and perches make an enclosure more interesting for your cat, says Dr. Colleran. Moore suggests providing separate areas for watching backyard activity and quietly snoozing.
  • Neighborliness Consider both what you want to view in your backyard and what others may be able to see, says Kischer. Put your enclosure in a place where it isn't publicly visible -- that's a plus for your cats and your neighbors.

Once you build an enclosure, you'll need to introduce kitty to its new space. Let your cat investigate at its own pace, advises Kischer. Soon enough, she says, you'll have peace of mind while your cat enjoys a bit of risk-free fresh air and stimulation.

Homemade Toys for Cats

If you have ever bought a fancy cat toy only to find your pet later playing with the packaging instead of the toy, you’re not alone. Baffled cat owners often wonder what went wrong. Some even take it personally. Your independent-minded kitty’s choice of diversion, though, is more a result of its genetics than its feelings towards you.

Because your cat is a predatory animal by nature, a simple object that engages all of its instincts will attract its attention the most. Homemade toys often satisfy kitty the most. To better understand their benefits, we consulted with expert Holly Tse, author of Make Your Own Cat Toys: Saving the Planet One Cat at a Time (CreateSpace 2008) and owner of the Makeyourowncattoys Web site. Along with her insights, she offered useful ideas to help you create your cat’s next favorite toy -- inexpensively and painlessly.

Consider the Benefits
Homemade toys not only benefit your cat, but they may also enhance your own lifestyle. Tse shares her top two reasons that homemade often trumps store-bought when it comes to cat toys:

You reduce your environmental impact “Some of the best homemade toys can be made by reusing or recycling items you already have around the house,” says Tse. By putting your “garbage” to good use, you divert usable objects away from landfills and direct them instead toward your eager kitty -- a plus in our eco-conscious times.

It’s fun and safe for you and your cat Making homemade cat toys is fun and creative, and it gives you the opportunity to bond more closely with your cat, says Tse. When it comes to safety, there won’t be any scares about lead paint in toys. “If you buy a toy made overseas, you don’t know what materials went into the manufacturing process,” explains Tse. “However, if you make a toy out of an old gym sock, then it’s really up to you to determine how toxic it is,” a smiling Tse adds.

Try It Yourself…
Ready to try your hand at creating your household’s next most popular cat toy? Here are four creative ideas from Tse’s book:

1. Lazy Wrestle Sausage (prep time: two minutes)
What you’ll need: one sock, one plastic grocery bag, one tablespoon organic catnip, one sturdy shoelace
How you’ll do it: Place the catnip in the sock. Stuff the sock with the grocery bag. It should feel soft and pliable to the touch. If it feels too stiff, cut away excess plastic from the bag. Next, tie the shoelace around the open end of the sock, about 2 inches from the end. The toy is now ready for a game of tug-of-war.

2. Dream Catcher (prep time: less than one minute)
What you’ll need: one CD, bright sunshine
How you’ll do it: Hold the CD in the natural light so that it casts reflections throughout the room. Try angling the reflection so that your cat can chase the light beam along the floor and walls.

3. Polar Ribbon (prep time: five minutes)
What you’ll need: old polar fleece jacket or top, one chopstick, one thick rubber band (like the ones used for broccoli), scissors
How you’ll do it: Cut a 1-inch-wide lengthwise strip from the polar fleece top. Continue cutting strips until they add up to 50-70 inches in length. Tie the strips together with double knots to form a very long ribbon. Tie a knot at one end of the ribbon, and tie the other end of the ribbon around the elastic band. Wrap the band around the wide end of the chopstick until it is secure. Now, swirl the ribbon above your cat’s head or dangle it above kitty’s belly. Watch her chase it and swat it.

4. Sweep Around (prep time: two minutes)
What you’ll need: one toilet paper roll, scissors
How you’ll do it: Cut one end of the toilet paper roll to make parallel lengthwise strips, about 2.5 inches long and 0.3 inches wide each. Cut all the way around the roll to form the bristle end of the broom. Press the toilet paper roll flat, then fold it in half lengthwise. Fold again. Fluff up the sweeper bristles so that it fans out like a broom. Sweep Around is now ready to sweep kitty off her feet.

Tse reminds that you should always try to supervise your cat when it is playing with toys, homemade or otherwise. Store the toys in an attractive, covered basket, or other container, until ready for use. As a final word of advice, Tse says, “Avoid items that your cat may want to eat or that have the potential to cause injury.” In fact, she concludes, “when in doubt, just leave it out.”

New Cat Toys on the Holiday Horizon

Cats can grow tired of their belongings in the same way that children seek constant stimulation -- even if it comes in the form of a holiday gift box. The best way to pique your cat’s interest? Brand new products. As the holiday season approaches, Leah Nelson, media relations associate for the 2009 Global Pet Expo and the American Pet Products Association, knows just what’s in store for cat lovers’ shopping pleasure. “Products of convenience are huge right now, as are health and safety products,” says Nelson. But as far as enjoyment is concerned, “Fashion-savvy pet owners are always driving the market, and of course, new cat toys.” Below, Nelson shares some of the highlights while Marrow weighs in on their fun factor.

For Family Playtime
Playing with your cat is an important part of creating and maintaining a bond. Toys like Bamboo Pet Center’s CatFisher Rod & Reel allow you to do that from the comfort of your own couch. Cast the collapsible rod up to 40 feet and watch Fluffy chase the catnip-scented mouse bait at the end of the hook. “When cats play, they’re practicing prey behavior,” says Marva Marrow, a cat behaviorist based in Los Angeles. “They’ll want to torture the ‘mouse,’ bat it around, force it to move. They like that aspect of play.”

Looking for a battery-operated mouse that will hold your feline’s attention? Panic Mouse’s Undercover Mouse might be just the right rodent. While fake furry mice don’t always pass your cat’s verisimilitude test, Undercover Mouse gets around looking fake by literally going under cover. Turn Undercover on and the movement underneath the toy’s nylon skirt will appear just like the motion of a real mouse. “Cats are attracted not to quick movement, but to objects that move like their natural prey,” says Marrow. The sudden stops, reversals of direction, and stealthy, teasing movements will have your cat believing there’s a mouse in your house.

For Alone-time Play
If your food-centric feline could use more exercise, Multivet’s SlimCat should be at the top of your gift list. SlimCat is a ball -- but not just any ball. It’s one that dispenses preset amounts of dry food as it’s being batted around. Your cat will be ready for the chase when kibble is the reward. “Toys they bat around are appealing to cats. They leave a lot to their imagination,” says Marrow. And this one makes their cardio workout all the more enticing.

Does your indoor cat love to play in the grass? Veterinary Ventures Aqua Garden gives your pet the opportunity to do just that in your absence. You plant the wheat grass in the Veterinary Ventures fountain (no dirt necessary), and it will grow for your cat’s scratching and eating pleasure, minimizing their destruction of houseplants in the process. “A cat’s favorite plaything is always unpredictable,” says Marrow. “It could be a plastic ring from a milk carton or a patch of wheat grass.”

For Nap Time
After all that playing, your pet might need some rest. On a cold winter’s day, a heated bed turns a catnap into a veritable day-spa visit. K & H Manufacturing’s Thermo-Kitty Fashion Splash contains an energy-efficient 4-watt heater. Another perk is that it comes in four bright colors. Its furry texture provides an added draw for your furry friend.

Traveling with your cat for the holidays? Sleepypod by Sleepypod goes from day bed to safety-conscious car seat. The Sleepypod Mini can even transform into an airline-approved carrier.

For Meal Time
Show your cat some love with a heart-shaped bowl from Petmate’s new Sassy Saucers Gift Set. While you may appreciate the shape and the print (plaid, polka-dotted, leopard-spotted) more than your sweetheart, your pet will benefit from the set’s durable polymers, which prevent the nicks that can trap bacteria. They’re also dishwasher safe.

As evidenced by the above gifts, which are all available for purchase online, this holiday season doesn’t have to mean the same old, same old for your cat. With a new toy and a new place to rest its head or satisfy its stomach, your feline will be feeling festive long after you’ve put away the winter holiday decorations.

Evaluate Cat Toys Like a Pro

The next time you’re on the lookout for a cool, new toy for your rambunctious kitty, imagine trying to find one in a room the size of ten football fields with 2,357 booths. The annual Global Pet Expo, featuring the latest and greatest products for horses, dogs, reptiles, fish and cats, was held in San Diego this past year and is headed to Orlando in 2009. Lucky for you, the selection of cat toys at your local pet store will be a lot smaller, since about 4,000 buyers from pet stores around the country comb the Expo to choose the very best to sell in their stores. 

When it comes to rating a cat toy, you might wonder how the Expo pros define “best.” Most explain that cat toys are not all about fun and games, even though your playful pet remains blissfully unaware of the deep thought that goes on behind their construction. The best cat toys serve an important purpose by keeping your feline mentally alert and physically active. One of the Expo’s Best in Show winners, the Fling-ama-String, does just that. It features a string that automatically pops out of a thin rectangular plastic holder and then retracts within a few seconds, only to pop out again. The surprise action tantalizes felines.

Here, our experts provide some specifics to keep in mind when shopping for kitty’s plaything:

  • Appeal to the hunting instinct “Cats like to track things, so they love any toy that brings out their hunting instinct,” says Michele Levan, creator of the award-winning Fling-ama-String toy.
  • Hold your cat’s interest “It’s good for indoor cats especially to have something besides food to interest them,” says Tina Cheng, DVM, of the Animal Clinic of Encino in Encino, Calif. “Cats are attracted to motion -- they will always love anything that bounces around and simulates the movement of a live insect or mouse,” she says. Undercover Cat, by Panic Mouse Inc., is a toy with a small piece of plastic that moves beneath a round nylon sheath in a perfect imitation of a scurrying mouse. Because the movements are erratic, cats are entertained for hours as they plan and execute their attacks. This toy was also a Best in Show winner at the recent Global Pet Expo.
  • Safety first “A toy shouldn’t have any little eyes or a nose that a cat could pull off and choke on,” says Maria Sabatine, owner of Pets Naturally, a pet store in Sherman Oaks, Calif. She warns against leaving any cat alone with a toy that has feathers, for the same reason. Look for toys that are sturdily made, with no detachable parts. Even a simple string can be dangerous. “Nothing is worse than a loose string,” says Levan. “When cats chew a string, it can get caught in their intestines.
  • Don’t make it too frustrating For research and development, Levan, who is also the owner of Moody Pets Inc. in Philadelphia, relies on three official testers: Gritty Kitty, age 16; Meeack Meeack, age 3; and Auggie, age 6 -- her very own cats. The Philadelphia-based inventor discovered that if her Fling-ama-String moved too fast, her cats became so frustrated by not being able to ultimately catch it that they got up and walked away. “That’s why this toy has two speeds, and most cats like it on the slow,” says Levan.
  • Intrigue fat and lazy cats “Cat obesity is on the rise,” says Dr. Cheng, who warns that excess weight can lead to serious health consequences, such as diabetes. A toy that intrigues a cat enough to stalk it, pounce on it or toss it in the air is a worthwhile investment, especially if your kitty is overweight. Cat Dancer, described as a “cat action toy,” features a small piece of cardboard the size of a large insect. It dangles from a wire and so fascinates cats that they’ll stand on their hind feet to swipe at it. Made by Cat Dancer Products Inc., this toy requires you, the owner, to hold the wire and lure your cat into play by wiggling it.
  • Make it fun for people A cat toy should give you hours of fun watching your cat play with it. If you don’t want to participate in your cat’s playtime, a small mouse-shaped toy stuffed with catnip might be right for you both. “Catnip has a harmless chemical in it that can produce a mild, short-lasting euphoria in cats,” says Dr. Cheng. It makes them want to sniff it and roll around in it, in highly entertaining displays of pleasure.

The best cat toy, of course, is the one your cat loves and will play with for hours on end. The choice could come down to your feline’s unique personality and tastes. You may need to bring home more than one toy, so that your cat can choose his or her own Best in Show winner.

Help for House Cats

No matter how adventurous your cat, it’s confronted by many risks the second it steps foot outside. The Humane Society of the United States estimates a free-roaming cat might live as few as three years, compared to 12 to 15 years for an indoor-only cat.

For much of feline history, cats roamed freely, serving as handy rodent-catchers around grain crops. As the years went on, people brought cats indoors, again relying on felines to reduce numbers of unwanted vermin. The cat’s role today has primarily evolved to that of a beloved companion, which needs and deserves our protection. The situation benefits both people and cats, since an indoor cat is a safer cat. Most feline fanciers are getting the message. About two-thirds of the estimated 90 million cats in the United States alone reside indoors.

However, cats need more than just the security of staying inside. It’s up to you to provide an environment that meets the needs of your indoor cat. The Indoor Cat Initiative, an Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine project, is designed to help you understand just what your indoor cat requires and how you can easily help it live a happy, healthy life. “As long as we’re going to have cats indoors, we certainly have the responsibility to keep them in the most enriched situation possible,’’ says Tony Buffington, DVM, Ph.D, director of the Indoor Cat Initiative.

The Initiative’s website offers basic advice for meeting your indoor cat’s requirements. You can also order a DVD from the site. You’ll be in tune with your cat’s needs, says Dr. Buffington, if you provide your house cat with these eight inside essentials:

  • Exercise Many veterinarians, such as Elizabeth Colleran, DVM, MS, of Chico, Calif., are concerned about the number of overweight felines they see in their practices. Dr. Colleran suggests providing “an abundance of cat toys. Having just one cat toy is silly.” The Indoor Cat Initiative advises understanding your cat’s prey of choice. Would your pal rather romp after an object that moves in the air? A furry toy? A laser light? Pay attention to your cat’s playtime preferences and buy accordingly.
  • Mental stimulation Playing with your feline during the day offers additional benefits, says Dr. Colleran. You’ll engage your cat mentally, which will help to keep your pal alert and involved with its surroundings. Your cat, nocturnal by nature, will also be less likely to keep you up during the night. Allowing your cat to hunt for food you’ve placed around the house also provides stimulation, she says. Don’t forget to offer your pet at least one room with a view. Cats love to watch outdoor activity.

  • Something to scratch Determine, just by observation and experimentation, what material your cat enjoys under its paws, says Dr. Colleran. Some cats scratch vertically, while others prefer to scratch horizontally. A scratching post needn’t be fancy. It can be a simple homemade device, created by nailing or stapling some scratching material, such as a carpet remnant, to a piece of plywood. Just be sure no sharp nails or staple points protrude before you present it to your clawed friend.

  • A place of its own Your cat needs a space where it feels safe and secure. Make sure food, water and litter are not located where another animal or person can sneak up or surprise your cat. The Indoor Cat Initiative suggests placing dishes and the litter box away from appliances or air ducts that might suddenly turn on, startling your cat.

  • Something to climb “People don’t think about cats operating in three dimensions,’’ says Dr. Buffington. “They need to climb. That’s part of their natural behavior. But people often don’t want them to climb on certain things.” Dr. Buffington believes cat owners often neglect to provide their cats a suitable alternative. You can purchase commercial perches and roosts for cats or, suggests Dr. Buffington, a six-foot pine ladder, if you don’t mind the unusual addition to your décor.

  • Clean, fresh litter Litter should be scooped daily and cleaned regularly, with each cat provided with its own box. Offer an ample-sized box, advises Dr. Colleran, who has written several papers about indoor cats. Select one of the bigger litter boxes you find on the shelf at your local pet store. Most large boxes measure around 18.5 inches in length and 15.25 inches in width, or more. Keep clutter and debris cleared from around the box. “Cats are really fastidious. They like their bathrooms clean, and they need a great, big litter box.”

  • Fresh grass or catnip Offer your cat something green to graze on, as it would chomp on grass outdoors.

  • Choice Cats enjoy choice, says Dr. Buffington. For instance, before you make a decision to change cat litter brands, place samples of both old and new for your cat to try. At mealtime, try offering two different-flavored foods side by side to see which one might be your pet’s fave.

Perhaps the most important thing you can do, according to Dr. Buffington, is to recognize when your indoor cat is healthy and engaged in its environment. If your indoor cat is alert and energetic, those are good signs that you are providing for its needs. “Learn to become a good cat observer,” he advises.